Planning, strategy and management
There is considerable variation in the definitions of planning, both explicit and assumed, offered in the marketing literature. The term is often used interchangeably with those of strategy and management and is usually prefaced by strategic or tactical
The strategic plan is defined as a statement outlining an organization’s future direction, near-term and long-term performance targets, strategy, and monitoring and control mechanisms. The planning process may also involve the coordination of different plans governing different levels or parts of the organization.
Strategic and tactical planning
The difference between strategic and tactical planning resides in the time horizon and the organizational scope of the plan. Strategic plans will generally deal with objectives, initiatives and events for several years into the future, and will impact on most areas of the organization. Tactical plans, in contrast, generally cover time periods of up to a year, and impact only on specific parts of the organization, such as the marketing department (MacDonald 1999). It will become evident that the successful implementation of RM requires a strategic approach. It should be stressed, however, that the successful implementation of a strategy depends on the use of appropriate tactics, and the planning process should cascade down through the organization.